# 📃 Solution for Exercise M4.05#

In the previous notebook we set penalty="none" to disable regularization entirely. This parameter can also control the type of regularization to use, whereas the regularization strength is set using the parameter C. Settingpenalty="none" is equivalent to an infinitely large value of C. In this exercise, we ask you to train a logistic regression classifier using the penalty="l2" regularization (which happens to be the default in scikit-learn) to find by yourself the effect of the parameter C.

We will start by loading the dataset.

Note

If you want a deeper overview regarding this dataset, you can refer to the Appendix - Datasets description section at the end of this MOOC.

import pandas as pd

# only keep the Adelie and Chinstrap classes
penguins = penguins.set_index("Species").loc[

culmen_columns = ["Culmen Length (mm)", "Culmen Depth (mm)"]
target_column = "Species"

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

penguins_train, penguins_test = train_test_split(penguins, random_state=0)

data_train = penguins_train[culmen_columns]
data_test = penguins_test[culmen_columns]

target_train = penguins_train[target_column]
target_test = penguins_test[target_column]


First, let’s create our predictive model.

from sklearn.pipeline import make_pipeline
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

logistic_regression = make_pipeline(
StandardScaler(), LogisticRegression(penalty="l2"))


Given the following candidates for the C parameter, find out the impact of C on the classifier decision boundary. You can use sklearn.inspection.DecisionBoundaryDisplay.from_estimator to plot the decision function boundary.

Cs = [0.01, 0.1, 1, 10]

# solution
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
from sklearn.inspection import DecisionBoundaryDisplay

for C in Cs:
logistic_regression.set_params(logisticregression__C=C)
logistic_regression.fit(data_train, target_train)
accuracy = logistic_regression.score(data_test, target_test)

DecisionBoundaryDisplay.from_estimator(
logistic_regression,
data_test,
response_method="predict",
cmap="RdBu_r",
alpha=0.5,
)
sns.scatterplot(
data=penguins_test, x=culmen_columns, y=culmen_columns,
hue=target_column, palette=["tab:red", "tab:blue"])
plt.legend(bbox_to_anchor=(1.05, 0.8), loc="upper left")
plt.title(f"C: {C} \n Accuracy on the test set: {accuracy:.2f}")    Look at the impact of the C hyperparameter on the magnitude of the weights.

# solution
weights_ridge = []
for C in Cs:
logistic_regression.set_params(logisticregression__C=C)
logistic_regression.fit(data_train, target_train)
coefs = logistic_regression[-1].coef_
weights_ridge.append(pd.Series(coefs, index=culmen_columns))

weights_ridge = pd.concat(
weights_ridge, axis=1, keys=[f"C: {C}" for C in Cs])
weights_ridge.plot.barh()
_ = plt.title("LogisticRegression weights depending of C") We see that a small C will shrink the weights values toward zero. It means that a small C provides a more regularized model. Thus, C is the inverse of the alpha coefficient in the Ridge model.

Besides, with a strong penalty (i.e. small C value), the weight of the feature “Culmen Depth (mm)” is almost zero. It explains why the decision separation in the plot is almost perpendicular to the “Culmen Length (mm)” feature.